//Bhumiputra of Calcutta//the ethnographic history of Calcutta//


**There is so much research on social history, but the social history of this Calcutta metropolis is very unknown.Who are the original inhabitants of Calcutta?Who are the sons of the earth?His answer is unknown to many.If Punjab is Punjabi, if Bengali is Bengali, Jaipur is Jaipuri,Mumbai is Mumbaikar.But whose Calcutta? Let's analyze a little justice and see who Kolkata is.Who is the claimant of the land of this metropolis?**

As everyone knows, Job Charnock leased three villages and settled in the Calcutta metropolis.  Foreign settlers like British, French, Portuguese etc. settled first.  Besides the local merchant community of the adjoining area, the landlords also settled in Madhavittara.Wealthy middle class people from neighboring districts like Hooghly, Howrah, 24 Parganas, Jessore, Nadia, Burdwan, Medinipur used to come to Calcutta for education, health, service, cultural, social and economic activities.  These were the first inhabitants of Calcutta.

In the second phase, the foreign merchant community came to Calcutta.  Persian merchants come from Mumbai, Jewish merchants also come from Mumbai.  They come to Calcutta by water and rail.  At one time 5 to 10 thousand Persians lived in British Calcutta.  Similarly, there were at least 4/5 thousand Jewish merchants in Calcutta.  They were mainly Baghdadi Jews.  Jewish cemeteries, synagogues, etc. in Calcutta are proof of that.  The David Nahum Cake Shop is still there.  The Persians are in Calcutta.

In the third stage, the Anglo-Indian community was formed.  The community is made up of British and European husbands and natives.Urdu speaking Muslims come in the fourth stage.  Nawab Wazed Ali Shah of Lucknow and his community were exiled to Calcutta.  Then, on the other hand, Tipu Sultan and his community came from Mysore.  An Urdu-speaking Muslim community was formed.  The dynasties of two different places, two Urdu-speaking groups, are also one of the original inhabitants of Calcutta.  Their arrival in Calcutta is historic.

There are also Chinese people who claim the status of the original landlord of Calcutta.  The arrival and permanent residence of the Chinese in Calcutta by sea is very historic.These are the Bhumiputras or original inhabitants of the Calcutta metropolis.  Until about 1947/48, visitors could be recognized as landlords.  Then came the Bangladeshi refugee community after partition (1947).  Refugee Bengalis but not direct Bengalis.  Bengali is their only step-motherly language.  Later they merged.

**Written by K SARKAR **
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